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It is The south rose has 94 medallions, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth. The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out. The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis , Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace. The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects.

The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century. These are the oldest glass in the window. Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles. Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. The south rose had a difficult history. In it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until — It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed.

The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style. The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass. In the s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows. The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier , are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and color to try to recreate the luminosity of the Cathedral's interior in the 13th century.

The fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The main feature still visible is the under-floor heating installed during the Roman occupation. The organ was dedicated in In , Charles Mutin modified and added several stops ; in , an electric blower was installed. An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in Between and , the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.

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In autumn , the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console. Between and , Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The current organ has stops ranks on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8, pipes. Coupure Chamade. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. Replay system. The cathedral has ten bells. The bourdon , called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tons [ citation needed ] and tuned to F sharp, has been an accompaniment to some of France's major historical events since its first 15th-century casting [ citation needed ] , such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II.

It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September , [ citation needed ] and on special holidays like Christmas , Easter , and Ascension. According to bell ringers and musicians, it is still one of the most beautiful sound vessels and one of the most remarkable of its kind in Europe.

Soutenir la restauration de Notre-Dame

There were also four bells that replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the North Tower in , these ring daily for basic services, the Angelus and the chiming of the hours. A few years later, in , a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the actual structure of Notre-Dame itself, so that they could be heard inside.

However, unfortunately, these are at present mute, although a project is currently being looked at, and hopefully will be put into place, in order to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in are now stored, as of February About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was being produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution.

The construction of bells is one of accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work has been entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell. Each of the new bells is named with names that have been chosen to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame. Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie.

At six tonnes and playing a G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings as a very distinctive feature, something which is different compared to the other bells. The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary and "The way is looking for travellers".

Below the phrase appears an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi.

Les Cathédrales de France (French Edition)

It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower. This ring is heard on only 1 January New Year's Day at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events. Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark specific moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris. In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size from largest to smallest. Gabriel is the largest bell there; it weighs four tons and plays an A sharp.

Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in , it also chimes the hour through the day. Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events. It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North. It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai. Named after two saints: St.

Anne , Mary's mother, and St. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues. Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.

Also it is the only bell that does not participate in a chime called the Angelus Domini, which happens in the summer at 8am, noon and 8pm or 9am, noon and 9pm. It is named after St. Denis , the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around the year ; it weighs 2 tons and plays a C sharp. This bell includes the third phrase of the Angelus, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord".

There are also seven circular lines representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the seven Sacraments. It plays a D sharp and weighs 1. It is named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the fifth century. The bell that bears his name as a tribute has engraved upon it the fourth sentence of the Angelus, "Be it done unto me according to Thy word". Stephen , the first Christian martyr. It plays an E sharp and weighs 1.

It plays an F and weighs 1. It has two silver stripes above the skirt and one silver stripe above the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings and sometimes chimes the hour replacing Gabriel, most likely on a chime called the Ave Maria. Maurice is the seventh largest bell in the North Tower and second smallest in the cathedral. It is named after Maurice de Sully , the bishop of Paris who laid the first stone for the construction of the Cathedral.


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It includes the inscription, "Pray for us, Holy Mother of God". It plays a G sharp and weighs one ton. It has two gray stripes below the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings. Jean Marie is the smallest bell of the cathedral. It plays an A sharp and weighs 0. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt. This bell is also used for weddings. It was nationalized on 2 November and since then has been the property of the French state.

Legislation from and clarified that cathedrals were maintained at the expense of the French government. This was reaffirmed in the law on the separation of Church and State , designating the Catholic Church as having the exclusive right to use it for religious purposes in perpetuity. Notre-Dame is one of seventy historic churches in France with this status.

The archdiocese is responsible for paying the employees, for security, heating and cleaning, and for ensuring that the cathedral is open free to visitors. The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French state. A view of Notre-Dame from Tour Montparnasse. Virgin of Paris , 14th century.

Tympanum of the Last Judgment. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cathedral in Paris, France. Monument historique. Main article: Notre-Dame de Paris fire. Main article: Spire of Notre Dame de Paris. See also: List of sculptures in Notre-Dame de Paris. Gargoyles were the rainspouts of the Cathedral. Allegory of alchemy , central portal. Grand-Orgue C—g 3 II. Positif C—g 3 III. Solo C—g 3 V. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Notre-Dame de Paris - Wikipedia

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: List of bells in Notre-Dame de Paris. South rose window of Notre-Dame de Paris. Flying buttresses of Notre-Dame. Close look of the details on the Tympanum of the Last Judgment Paris portal Catholicism portal Architecture portal.

Cathédrale Notre-Dame

It appears that Bishop Sully entirely dug out the foundations of the early Christian basilica so as to found Notre-Dame on the bedrock under the island. It is thought that the population of Paris grew from 25, in to 50, in , making it the largest European city outside of Italy.


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The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 15 April Collins English Dictionary. Oxford Dictionary of English. New Oxford American Dictionary. Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 2 August Paris Digest. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 15 September Le Point in French. Archived from the original on 9 August Archived from the original on 20 August Retrieved 16 April National Geographic. Retrieved 18 April May History Today.

Archived from the original on 28 July USA Today. Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 19 April The Louvre. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 21 April Foundation Napoleon.

Notre-Dame-de-Paris - Région Ile de France - Le Monument Préféré des Français

Retrieved 25 April New York Times. Ogden-Standard Examiner. Catholic Digest. Retrieved 10 November Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 April — via Deseret News. The Times. L'Express in French. Who Will Help Save It? BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 7 January Le Figaro in French.

Archived from the original on 22 May Retrieved 21 May The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 14 February Archived from the original on 11 April Queensland Time. Atlanta Journal Constitution. Financial Times. Retrieved 17 April Metro UK. Uncertainty over time needed to rebuild Notre-Dame".

The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 13 May Le Monde in French. Laurens, , p. Catholic Exchange. Retrieved 23 June The Independent. Catholic Herald. Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 27 April Project Gutenburg. Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 3 August Huffington Post France. It looked dire. US President Donald Trump tweeted that "perhaps flying water tankers could be used to put it out," but the civil defense agency of the French government responded that firefighters are using all means to combat the blaze, "except for water-bombing aircrafts which, if used, could lead to the collapse of the entire structure of the cathedral.

Hundreds of firemen of the Paris Fire Brigade are doing everything they can to bring the terrible NotreDame fire under control. All means are being used, except for water-bombing aircrafts which, if used, could lead to the collapse of the entire structure of the cathedral. Images of the fire quickly swept the globe on social media. Emotion of a whole nation. Thought for all Catholics and for all French.

Like all our countrymen, I'm sad tonight to see this part of us burn," French President Emmanuel Macron tweeted. France 24 reported that Macron considered the fire a national emergency. In a tweet, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo said firefighters were working to control the flames, and she urged residents and visitors to respect the security perimeter. Social media also indulged in one of its favorite pastimes — conspiracy theories — after a US politician tweeted out unverified information when a friend in Europe told him the fire was set intentionally.

Christopher Hale, who ran for Congress in Tennessee and writes opinion columns for Time magazine, quickly noted that his friend's information hadn't been confirmed, and he deleted his original tweet , according to The Daily Beast. But that didn't stop far-right conspiracy theorists from using Hale's tweet as proof that terrorists had started the fire.

President Macron vowed to rebuild Notre Dame. Here are a few places to get you started if you're interested in being a part of rebuilding the cathedral:. If you want to visit or relive a trip there, you can see virtual tours both inside the majestic halls and from a birds-eye view of the timeless architecture. Originally published April Updates April , April 22 and May 29 : Added information about the fire and its aftermath, and what lies ahead.

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Notre-Dame de Paris

Don't show this again. By Shelby Brown. The world mourned with Paris as a fire tore through the Cathedral of Notre Dame last month. Experts now plan to fortify what's left of the year-old structure. A visual history of Notre-Dame de Paris 36 Photos. View this post on Instagram. Now playing: Watch this: The fire truck of the future?