Bajger founded the Danish Interparliamentary Group in , and was a life-long believer in peace and arbitration. He's also been credited with laying the groundwork for the International Peace Bureau. Beernaert won the Nobel Peace Prize for "inter-parliamentary work and [appearances] at the international peace conferences at the Hague in and D'Estournelles also won the prize in He was the founder and president of a French parliamentary group for voluntary arbitration, and the founder of the Committee for the Defense of National Interests and International Conciliation.
The Permanent International Peace Bureau is a Swiss organization that "campaigned for disarmament and for the use of mediation and arbitration in the solution of international disputes. But it was "his work in the field of private law" that was most important to his win. He was also the first president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Root was awarded the prize "for having pursued the aim that conflicts between states must be resolved by arbitration.
La Fontaine was the first socialist to win the prize — he won for being the "effective leader of the peace movement in Europe. It won because it "undertook the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides, including their right to establish contacts with their families. Wilson won the prize for founding the League of Nations , which was a dream many previous winners had shared. Ex-secretary of state and former president of the French Parliament, Bourgeois was a major figure in the development of the League of Nations.
It was his passion project to see an international court established at the Hague, which he saw through. Branting was "a leading figure in the struggle for equal rights and social justice in Sweden," and a strong supporter of the League of Nations. In , Nansen was appointed the first High Commissioner for Refugees , putting him in charge of the exchanges of , prisoners of war.
His work in their behalf, as well as on behalf of many starving refugees, is what won him the prize. Dawes, on the other hand , won for "having contributed to reducing the tension between Germany and France after the First World War. Briand, a professor and founder of the League for Human Rights, and Stresmann , ex-high chancellor and foreign minister, split the award — they both won for their work on the Locarno Pact, which helped ease tension between France and Germany after World War I. French foreign minister Buisson and German professor Quidde, who later became president of the German Peace Society, split the prize evenly — they received it jointly for their contributions to the reconciliation of France and Germany after World War I.
US Secretary of State Kellogg received the prize for his part in initiating the Kellogg-Briand Pact of , an international agreement that had signatory states promising not to use war to resolve disputes.
List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates - Wikipedia
The archbishop and former theology professor is credited for moving the Universal Conference on Life and Work forward, which worked to fight nationalism, racism, and the oppression of minorities. Addams, and American known as the "mother" of social work, received the honor for founding the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and for being an outspoken opponent of entering World War I. Butler, an American philosopher and diplomat, as well as president of Columbia University, and president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, won for "his efforts to strengthen international law and the International Court at the Hague," as well as his support of the Kellogg-Briand Pact of Sir Angell remains the only Nobel Peace Prize winner to have won for writing a book — he won for writing "The Great Illusion," which explored the relationship between war and any potential national or economic advantage it may bring about.
He was also celebrated for his work as an educator and for his support of the League of Nations. British politician Henderson earned the prize for his work with the League of Nations , specifically for being "one of the principal architects behind the organization's disarmament conference. Ossietzky's win was inherently political — the German pacifist was arrested for treason when he reported that Germany was secretly rearming itself, explicitly going against the Treaty of Versailles.
Part of the international campaign to get him released was awarding him the Nobel Peace Prize. Lamas, an Argentine academic and politician, won the prize for three main reasons. First, he deserves much of the credit for Argentina joining the League of Nations. Second, he was important in the League's "condemnation of Italy's war on Ethiopia.
English statesman Cecil won the prize for his work with the League of Nations. He was an integral part in the formation of the organization's rules. The Nansen International Office for Refugees won the prize for its work with aiding refugees — specifically for their work with Armenian refugees who were driven out of Turkey. Hull, known a the longest-serving Secretary of State, won the prize for his work as the "father of the United Nations," an organization that was founded after World War II.
Balch, an American economist and sociologist known for tackling social issues such as poverty, child labor and immigration, became a Nobel Laureate for leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.
The US, however, saw her as a "dangerous radical. Mott was the head of the Young Men's Christian Association — the YMCA — and won for contributing "to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries. These two Quaker organizations shared the prize.
List of Nobel Peace Prize winners
They both did humanitarian work during World War I and II, but their win was the "Nobel Committee's recognition both of pioneering work in the international peace movement and of humanitarian work carried out without regard for race or nationality. Bunche, an academic and diplomat, was the first African American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, which he won for "having arranged a cease-fire between Israelis and Arabs during the war, which followed the creation of the state of Israel in Jouhaux, the French trade union leader, joined the elite Nobel Laureate club for his "work for social equality and Franco-German reconciliation.
The organization was honored for its work with refugees after World War II — the cause for which it was originally created. Pire, a Belgian Dominican friar, received the prize for his work with refugees in Europe. Through the s, he set up villages of small houses for European refugees, and he founded an organization in that undertook development projects in other parts of the world. When World War I began, Noel-Baker, a British politician and diplomat, was convinced the private armaments industry was largely responsible for the outbreak of war.
For the rest of his life, he worked towards disarmament , including in efforts to prevent nuclear war between the United States and Soviet Union. He became president of the African National Congress in , and spokesperson of a campaign against South Africa's racial segregation policy. He was arrested and persecuted, and the ANC was banned following a massacre of 60 black demonstrators in The Nobel Committee's decision to award him the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent campaign for civil rights in South Africa was important because it showed that the committee had joined the movement against apartheid.
He organized a peacekeeping force in the Middle East after the "Suez Crisis," and committed to peace during the civil war in the Congo. Pauling is the only person to have received two Nobel Prizes; he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in He received the Nobel Peace Prize in for his opposition to weapons of mass destruction, having acted as one of the primary forces behind a nuclear test ban treaty between the United States, Soviet Union, and Great Britain that went into effect in The Red Cross won their third Nobel Prize in , for the th anniversary of their founding. It's the only organization to have won three Nobel prizes.
King, Jr. According to the Nobel Committee, UNICEF's work helped promote solidarity between nations , which reduced the divide between rich and poor states, and the danger of war. Cassin, a French judge, is referred to as the "father of human rights," as he was the brains behind the UN commission that drew up the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of The ILO strives to improve the working conditions and social rights of employees. American agronomist Borlaug is known as the "father of the green revolution. He developed a strain of wheat called "dwarf wheat," which was high-yield and disease-resistant.
He brought it to India and Pakistan, exponentially increasing production there. He had West Germany sign the nuclear weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty, concluded a nonviolence agreement with the Soviet Union, and one with Poland detailing that West Germany accepted the new national boundaries in Eastern Europe.
These treaties acted as the groundwork for the Four Power Agreement in Berlin, which made it easier for families to visit each other from opposing sides of the divide. Vietnamese general and diplomat Le Duc Tho and Henry Kissinger compromised to have a truce in Vietnam between and However, while heading the negotiations, Kissinger ordered a bombing on Hanoi in , which ultimately led to an armistice. When the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the both of them, Tho declined on the grounds that Kissinger had violated the truce. Sato became a symbol of "Japan's will for peace.
The Nobel Committee hoped that by awarding him with the Nobel Peace Prize, it would encourage those against the spread of nuclear arms. Sakharov, a Russian nuclear physicist, was the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb , but was awarded the Peace Prize for his work for human rights in the Soviet Union as well as his opposition to the abuse of power.
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He was outspoken in his criticism of the system of the Soviet Union, which he believed neglected fundamental human rights. After a shooting incident that killed three children in Belfast in , a witness, Williams, and the dead children's aunt, Corrigan, founded a peace organization known as the Community of Peace People.
They took a grassroots approach, setting up local peace groups in the hopes of setting a peace process in motion from the bottom up. Founded in by British lawyer Peter Benenson, Amnesty International won in for campaigning against human torture. President Sadat of Egypt shared the prize with Israel's Prime Minister, Menachem Begin , for negotiating a peace treaty between their two countries.
Mother Teresa, known as Saint Teresa in the Roman Catholic Church, won for creating Missionaries of Charity — a sisterhood devoted to aiding orphans, lepers, and the terminally ill. Esquivel won in for being a human rights activist in his home country of Argentina , and for advocating non-violence during its dictatorship in the early '70s. Disarmament" won for advocating disarmament and nuclear-free zones.
Walesa had just been released from internment when he won the Nobel in for campaigning for freedom of organization in Communist Poland. After the country was liberated and held free elections, Walesa was elected president in Among those nominating are Nobel laureates, members of the prize-awarding institutions themselves; scholars active in the fields of physics, chemistry, economics, and physiology or medicine; and officials and members of diverse universities and learned academies.
Self-nomination automatically disqualifies the nominee. Prize proposals must be submitted to the Nobel Committees on or before January 31 of the award year.
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On February 1 the six Nobel Committees—one for each prize category—start their work on the nominations received. During September and early October the Nobel Committees have accomplished their work and submit their recommendations to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the other prize-awarding institutions. The deliberations and the voting within these institutions are secret at all stages. The final decision by the awarders must be made by November Prizes may be given only to individuals, except the Peace Prize, which may also be conferred upon an institution.
Steinman for physiology or medicine; Steinman was named a winner several days after his death, which was unbeknownst to the Nobel Assembly. It was decided that he would remain a Nobel laureate, since the purpose of the posthumous rule was to prevent prizes being deliberately awarded to deceased individuals.
The awards may not be appealed. Official support, whether diplomatic or political, for a certain candidate has no bearing on the award process because the prize awarders, as such, are independent of the state. Nobel Prize award. See Article History. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today. Load Next Page.